Antioxidants Might Help in Early Diabetic Kidney Disease

Antioxidants and Kidney DiseaseA recent meta-analysis and review found supplementation with antioxidants, like Vitamin E, may reduce the loss of a specific protein, albumin, in a patient’s urine.  The excretion of albumin is an early sign of diabetic kidney disease (DKD).

The purpose of the meta-analysis and review was to determine if antioxidant supplementation would slow the progression of DKD to end state kidney disease (ESKD).  DKD is the prime cause of ESKD.  Approximately half of all long-term diabetics end up developing some form of kidney damage over their lifetime.  Most trials reviewed used Vitamin E and or Vitamin E as well as B6, Zinc, Alpha Lipoic Acid, Silymarin and reduced Glutathione.  Antioxidants were used either individually or in combination.

Most antioxidants showed some benefit in reducing Urinary Albumin Excretion (UAE).  Vitamin E showed the most consistent benefit.  Researchers found it difficult to reach any strong conclusions due to the diversity in study designs, trial sizes, outcome measures to name a few of the meta-analysis challenges.  However researchers did find a benefit of antioxidant therapy (especially Vitamin E) on early signs of renal damage.

Further studies are needed.



Study Sheds “New Light” on Role of Omega-3 in Type 1 Diabetes Protection

Omega-3 DiabetesA new research paper suggests that Omega-3 Essential Fatty Acids may reduce children’s risk of Type 1 Diabetes.  This research looked at whether childhood serum Fatty Acid levels were linked to the development of autoimmunity in children genetically predisposed to developing Type 1 Diabetes.

Over 7,700 children who had an increased genetic risk of developing Type 1 Diabetes participated in this research which occurred between 1997 and 2004.  The children’s blood samples were taken at regular intervals until they reached 15 years of age.  The children were monitored for islet autoimmunity.  Type 1 Diabetes results from the destruction of insulin-producing beta cells in the islets of the pancreas by the body’s immune system. Before Type 1 Diabetes presents with symptoms, underlying autoimmunity to the insulin-producing cells can be detected by measuring antibodies in the blood stream. These antibodies are known as islet autoantibodies and the condition is known as islet autoimmunity.

This study found the Omega 3 Essential Fatty Acids could play a role in Type 1 Diabetes development and that these Omega 3 might be protective against this disease, especially during infancy.  Higher serum blood levels of fatty acids consumed during breastfeeding were associated with a lower risk of islet autoimmunity and Type 1 Diabetes.

Further studies are needed.


Vitamin D Blunts Negative Impact of Statins in Diabetes Patients Post Exercise

Vitamin DA new study shows patients with Type 2 Diabetes who are taking statin drugs and supplementing with Vitamin D improves their cardio respiratory fitness as well as muscle mitochondria.

28 individuals participated in this randomized controlled trial.  Data from the participants upon completion of the trial showed that participants cardio respiratory fitness decreased by 8.4% after 12 weeks of simvastatin therapy. These individuals also experienced a 3.6% decrease in mitochondrial content.   Participants who were taking the simvastatin therapy but were also supplementing with Vitamin D however showed a decrease in cardio respiratory fitness of only .6% and a 12.1% improvement in mitochondrial content.  Participants who only took Vitamin D without the simvastatin therapy saw an increase in cardio respiratory fitness of 7.1% and a 16.7% increase in mitochondrial content.

Researchers believe that the statin simvastatin in inclined to cause a decline in exercise-mediated cardio respiratory fitness in adults with Type 2 Diabetes by interrupting the synthesis of CoEnzyme Q10.


Omega-3 Supplements May Provide Long-Term Diabetic Benefits

Omega 3-DiabetesInflammation typically seen in Type 1 Diabetes may be reduced by Omega-3 Essential Fatty Acids according to new research.  In a study involving mice supplementation with Omega 3 led to long-term improvements in insulin and glucose levels.

Female non-obese diabetic mice were fed a control diet which was supplemented with either 10% arachidonic acid (an Omega 6 Essential Fatty Acid) or 10% EPA/DHA (an Omega 3 Essential Fatty Acid).  This regimen lasted for 35 weeks and started when the mice were 5 weeks old.  To test insulin tolerance Glucose tolerance tests were used.  80% of the female non-obese diabetic mice (NOD) who were fed a regular diet had developed diabetes by the age of 40 weeks however only 33% of the mice who received the EPA/DHA diet were considered diabetic.

Researchers looked at how the EPA/DHA would affect the human CD4+T cells, these cells play an essential role in the adaptive immune system.  Researchers found that Omega 3 Essential Fatty Acids had the same effect on differentiating CD4+T cells isolated from Type 1 Diabetics as those seen in the NOD mice suggesting the Omega 3 Essential Fatty Acids may potentially be used as a therapy in addressing Type 1 Diabetes.


Can Magnesium Protect Against Heart Disease and Diabetes?

Heart and MagnesiumA new meta-analysis has found a diet which includes magnesium may help reduce the risk of Type 2 Diabetes (T2DM), stroke and heart disease.

Data from 40 studies done between 1999 and 2016 was analyzed.  This included data on over 1 million people covering nine different countries.  Self-reported food frequency questionnaires and 24 hour dietary recalls were used to determine the levels of magnesium in the diet of the participants.  Since the magnesium levels used to define different categories were different in each study, researchers also looked into the effect an increase of 100 mg per day of dietary magnesium had on health.

The results suggested participants taking the highest magnesium doses compared to those taking the lowest saw a 10% reduction in the risk of heart disease, a 26% reduction in the risk of developing Type 2 Diabetes and a 12% reduction in the risk of strokes.  Additionally they found an increase in magnesium intake by 100 mg daily could reduce Type 2 Diabetes risk by 19% and stroke risk by 7%.

Magnesium is involved in over 300 enzymatic processes in the body.  Magnesium plays an essential role in DNA synthesis, protein production and glucose metabolism.  Last July the European Food Safety Authority established an adequate intake of Magnesium at 350 mg per day for men and 300 mg/day for women.  It is not uncommon for individuals to have a magnesium deficiency.



Vitamin D Pills Improve Insulin Measures in Healthy Adults

vitamin-dAccording to a new study supplementation of Vitamin D may improve fasting glucose levels as well as insulin resistance in healthy adults.

96 healthy adults were randomly determined to receive either a placebo or a Vitamin D3 supplement (420 IU) daily.  The study lasted 1 year.  Results showed increases in serum blood levels of Vitamin D at the end of the study period for participants supplementing with the Vitamin D3 compared to the placebo group.  Decreases of 3.0 mg/dL in mean glucose concentrations were seen in the Vitamin D3 group while no changes were seen in the placebo group.  Also insulin resistance (measured with the homeostasis model HOMA-IR) decreased significantly in the Vitamin D group and again no changes were seen in the placebo group.

Vitamin D is an essential nutrient involved in the maintenance of bone density and strength.  It is best known for it’s ability to move calcium through the intestinal wall into the bloodstream.  Even though the human body can manufacture Vitamin D under ideal circumstances there is strong evidence that many people may suffer from a deficiency of this nutrient making supplementation important.  Cholecalciferol (D3) is a natural, highly bio- available form of Vitamin D.



Chromium May Lower Diabetes Risk


Illustration of the element Chromium
Illustration of the element Chromium

Chromium May Lower Diabetes Risk:

According to new research people supplementing with chromium, a trace mineral, may be less likely to develop Type-2 Diabetes.

Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was analyzed.  Researchers concluded that the odds of having Type 2 diabetes were reduced in people who had consumed supplements containing chromium within the last 30 days.

According to the Centers for Disease Control approximately 9% of the more than 29 million Americans have diabetes.  One in three Americans are considered to be prediabetic.  Adults with diabetes have a 50% higher risk of death when compared with individuals without the disease.  Type-2 diabetics make up the majority of people diagnosed with diabetes and are unable to use insulin properly.

According to published studies, people who supplement with the mineral chromium are less likely to have Type-2 diabetes.  Many cases of Type-2 diabetes are preventable according to the Centers for Disease Control.

In the past chromium was popular with diabetics who believed this mineral helped lower blood sugar levels.  However research backing up these beliefs was limited.  This new research renews interest in this mineral.

Further studies are planned.