Resveratrol May Boost Mitochondrial Function For Diabetics

Resveratrol and Mitochondrial Function for DiabeticsA new study suggests supplementation with Resveratrol, an antioxidant found in red wine, may provide support for blood vessels against the negative effects of high blood sugar.  Early stages of diabetes are found to cause detrimental changes in coronary microvascular function according to data from both animal and cell studies.  These changes are linked to mitochondria dysfunction.  The mitochondria, is what provides energy to the cell.   Resveratrol, the phytonutrient found in red wine and grapes, seems to protect the function of the mitochondria and hence provides cardiovascular health for individuals suffering from diabetes.

Endothelial cells were used in this study to look at the effects high blood glucose levels may play on mitochondrial dysfunction and cell health.  Diabetic rats were then used to determine the benefits resveratrol may play in cardiovascular health.  Coronary microvascular dysfunction was seen in the early stages of diabetes during this study.

It is known that mitochondrial function decreases as individuals’ age.  Aging is a risk factor known for many neurodegenerative and age related diseases.  This led researchers to try to determine if mitochondrial dysfunction could lead to degenerative diseases.  Oxidative stress has long been proposed as promoting mitochondrial dysfunction.  Antioxidants such as vitamins E and C as well as CoQ10 may also play a role in combating oxidative stress.

Further study is warranted.

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Could Low Vitamin D Put Postmenopausal Women At a Higher Risk of Metabolic Syndrome?

According to new data the onset of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) in postmenopausal women may be closely linked to Vitamin D deficiency.  Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) was seen in 58% of postmenopausal women with either deficient or insufficient levels of Vitamin D when compared with a 40% occurrence in women with adequate Vitamin D levels.

Over 450 women participated in this study.  Participants ages were between 45 and 75 years and all participants had stopped menstruating for at the minimum of 1 year prior to the beginning of the study.  Additionally none of the participants had experienced any type of Cardiovascular Disease at the baseline.  35% of the participants were Vitamin D deficient and 33% of the participants had insufficient levels of Vitamin D.  A Vitamin D deficiency is usually defined as blood levels below 50 nanomoles/liter (nmol/L) and an insufficient Vitamin D level is defined as a blood level between 50 – 75 nmol/L.

Blood levels of the participants Vitamin D levels were measured and compared to the analyzed Metabolic Syndrome parameters of the participants.  Researchers found the lower the blood level of Vitamin D the greater the occurrence of Metabolic Syndrome.  Additionally researchers found an inverse relationship between blood triglycerides and HDL levels, 2 individual components of Metabolic Syndrome and Vitamin D levels.

Metabolic Syndrome involves a group of conditions that increase a person’s risk for stroke, heart disease and diabetes.    For the purposes of the study, participants meeting 3 of more of the criteria listed below were considered to have Metabolic Syndrome:

Waist circumference above 88 cm

High Blood Pressure (above 130/85 mmHG)

High Blood Sugar (fasting glucose levels over 100 mg/dl)

Abnormal triglycerides (above 150 mg/dl)

HDL below 50 mg/dl

Further studies are needed.

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CoQ10 Deficiency Linked to Pre-Diabetes

Q10-Pre-DiabetesAccording to a new study in eLife low levels of CoEnzyme Q10 (COQ10) in muscle and fat cells are associated with insulin resistance.

Researchers found a reduction in mitochondrial CoQ10 levels in samples from insulin-resistance humans, mouse modes and in cellular in vitro experiments.  The study also found that the reduction in mitochondrial CoQ10 brings about insulin resistance by increasing mitochondrial oxidants.  Previous studies have shown that these oxidants can cause insulin resistance.

Researchers also showed CoQ10 supplementation also restored insulin sensitivity and mitochondrial CoQ10 levels, a significant finding for developing programs for treating pre-diabetes and insulin resistance.

CoQ10 is an enzyme found in the cells mitochondria and aids in transferring oxygen between cells.  It is recognized as necessary for converting nutrients into usable energy.

Further studies are planned.

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Lack of Vitamin D Linked to Diabetes-Related Autoimmunity

Vitamin D and DiabetesNew research has found that making sure children have adequate Vitamin D levels throughout childhood could be important in lowering the risk of islet autoimmunity (IA) in children with a genetic risk for Type 1 Diabetes.  IA is implicated in the progression and development of Type 1 Diabetes.

Data from over 350 children who developed islet autoimmunity was compared with data from over 1,000 children who did not have this disorder.  Researchers found that in “children with a genetic variant in the Vitamin D receptor gene”, children who developed islet autoimmunity had lower Vitamin D levels in both childhood and infancy when compared to children that did not develop IA.  These findings were part of The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) study.  This multi national study searched for protective factors and triggers of Type 1 Diabetes.  Over 8,600 children with elevated Type 1 Diabetes risks participated in the full TEDDY study.  Every 3 – 6 months the study participants gave a blood sample.  The study began in infancy.

Type 1 Diabetes is considered to be a chronic autoimmune disease and is now the most common metabolic disorder in children under 10 years of age.  The incidence of Type 1 Diabetes is increasing by 3% – 5% annually.

Researchers are looking at future studies to establish a cause and effect between Vitamin D supplementation and its ability to aid in preventing Type 1 Diabetes.

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Short-Term Fish Oil Consumption Helps Prevent Type-2 Diabetes in People with Existing Metabolic Disorders

Omega-3 and DiabetesAccording to a new meta-analysis supplementation with Omega-3 Essential Fatty Acids could increase insulin sensitivity and reduce the risk of diabetes in people who suffer from metabolic disorders.

17 studies with over 670 participants over the age of 18 were reviewed by researchers.  In individuals experiencing at least one symptom of a metabolic disorder Omega-3 supplementation heightened their insulin sensitivity, however the same benefits were not seen the participants who were healthy or already had Type-2 Diabetes.  A 47% decrease in insulin resistance was seen in the group supplementing with Omega-3 and had metabolic disorders but did not have Type-2 Diabetes.

Researchers found that serum Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels took approximately 4 weeks to reach equilibrium.  They stressed that duration of supplementation and not dosage was crucial for the Omega-3 to be most effective.

More research is needed.

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Magnesium Pills May Improve Blood Pressure in At-Risk Populations

Magnesium and High Blood PressureA new meta-analysis found individuals with pre-diabetes, insulin resistance or other non-communicable chronic disease have a higher risk for hypertension (High Blood Pressure) but supplementation with Magnesium may lower their blood pressure.

11 gold-standard randomized controlled trials were reviewed.  Researchers found Magnesium supplementation significantly decreased both systolic (4.18 mmHg) and diastolic (2.27 mmHg) blood pressure.  It is believed that Magnesium effects vascular tone and thus improves endothelium (the layer of cells lining blood vessels) function which directly lowers blood pressure.  Additionally Magnesium has been reported to have a synergistic effect when combined with medications that are considered to be antihypertensive.

The National Institute of Health (NIH) lists Magnesium as being involved in over 300 enzymatic processes in the body, such as helping to maintain normal nerve and muscle functions, keeping our bones strong as well as supporting a healthier immune response.  This important mineral is also necessary for supporting healthy blood pressure and blood sugar management.  70% – 80% of the population in the United States is not achieving the recommended intakes of daily Magnesium.

Researcher concluded that a well-designed, double blind, randomized placebo-controlled clinical study is warranted to provide more substantial evidence as to the benefits of Magnesium supplementation on blood pressure as well as disease outcomes in patients with pre-diabetes, insulin resistance and other non-communicable chronic diseases.

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Antioxidants Might Help in Early Diabetic Kidney Disease

Antioxidants and Kidney DiseaseA recent meta-analysis and review found supplementation with antioxidants, like Vitamin E, may reduce the loss of a specific protein, albumin, in a patient’s urine.  The excretion of albumin is an early sign of diabetic kidney disease (DKD).

The purpose of the meta-analysis and review was to determine if antioxidant supplementation would slow the progression of DKD to end state kidney disease (ESKD).  DKD is the prime cause of ESKD.  Approximately half of all long-term diabetics end up developing some form of kidney damage over their lifetime.  Most trials reviewed used Vitamin E and or Vitamin E as well as B6, Zinc, Alpha Lipoic Acid, Silymarin and reduced Glutathione.  Antioxidants were used either individually or in combination.

Most antioxidants showed some benefit in reducing Urinary Albumin Excretion (UAE).  Vitamin E showed the most consistent benefit.  Researchers found it difficult to reach any strong conclusions due to the diversity in study designs, trial sizes, outcome measures to name a few of the meta-analysis challenges.  However researchers did find a benefit of antioxidant therapy (especially Vitamin E) on early signs of renal damage.

Further studies are needed.

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